Posted in Eleanor Cawley, M.S., OTR/L

So Why Should Occupational Therapists Bother to Write Rubrics?

Mostly, therapists read my posts on social media and then move on. Some comment positively and others, not at all. But then there are those times when there  is that one person who challenges you. I must say, that one person tends to get my fight on! I feel that I have to prove my work all over again. But I really love the debate. To those of you who feel that rubrics are not necessary, that’s okay. However, I feel they are.
Rubrics have been around for a very long time. During my research for my book, “Using Rubrics to Monitor Outcomes in Occupational Therapy“I found that rubrics actually began not in the educational field but in the medical field, decades ago. I feel that rubrics were lost in the shuffle in part due to the changes in the provider/client relationship, moving from power over to power with and ultimately to power through our clients. Now that we are searching for ways to become more ‘client-centered’ as a profession, I feel that transparent, understandable documentation is the key.

It has always been our premise, as occupational therapists, to have our clients engaged in purposeful activity. With the increasing intrusion of third-party payment systems into what we do with our clients and the struggle to become ‘client-centered’ having a method of recording progress becomes increasingly important. Yes, of course, we need to get paid for our work but we also have an obligation to our clients, any one receiving our services.

We all have those people, who question what we do.  I am sure that each and every one of us has had this experience.  Sometimes we can explain what is going on, through statements based on clinical knowledge, but then there are other times that we need real data.  Some challengers will accept the “+” or “-” system of data collection [“+” yes the client was able to perform the task or “-” no the client was not able to perform the task]  while

 

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others want more information.

So rubrics offer us a method of documenting some of our thought processing with regard to critical thinking, clinical reasoning and judgment. Sharing rubrics with clients and caregivers provides them with a tool to engage them in the treatment process in a way that is greater than just sharing goals.  By encouraging clients to monitor their own progress they become more vested, more engaged and more accountable to themselves and to us, their service providers, ultimately leading to greater gains.

Rubrics may be initially time-consuming to learn and to write, just like any other skill, the experienced therapist will soon be developing rubrics a lightening speed and have at their disposal a wealth of data and documentation supporting our services.  In my humble opinion, if a therapist chooses to use or not to use rubrics, it is okay, it’s their decision.  I choose to use rubrics, engage my clients in progress monitoring, and have data specifically highlighting the client’s progress.  In my opinion, how can I expect my clients to make the best progress if I do not share my expectations with them. I feel that I empower my clients through the use of rubrics, because I want to, not because I have to.

 

 

Posted in Eleanor Cawley, M.S., OTR/L

Using Rubrics to Monitor Outcomes in Occupational Therapy

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Using Rubrics to Monitor Outcomes in Occupational Therapy

Every practice setting that an occupational therapist, or any other health care provider, works in is demanding accountability and transparency. School-based practice is not immune, gone are the days of a teacher’s or therapist’s opinion. Reports are now required to be a balanced assessment of a student’s abilities, strengths and weakness including both formative and summative data. Occupational therapists need to know how to meet the demands of today’s data driven environment. As a research emergent profession, we are called upon to take data systematically. In an educational environment, occupational therapists should be aligning their data collectionmethods and documentation style with teachers. By aligning our documentation style and data collection methods, a more cohesive picture of the student emerges. This allows for more concise development of the IEP and goals targeted toward the student’s individual needs. Data collection need not be difficult. With a little preparation and smart organization planning, data collection becomes easy. When annual review time comes around, goal progress is also easy to report. This allows better planning for the coming year by the Committee on Special Education. Students also benefit by using rubrics in an occupational therapy setting. Some students cannot see or understand the “hidden curriculum.” These students need the guidelines for achievement that others may not. In using a rubric, you are defining the rules by which you consider a goal achieved. This can potentially improve goal progress and decrease the student’s anxiety about being pulled out or having a therapist in the classroom. For some students, a rubric provides the light at the end of the tunnel. With systematic data collection through the use of rubrics, occupational therapists have a unique opportunity to review and interpret the data collected from his or her students to create pilot or ex post facto studies. This can potentially lead to further research. Rubrics can be a win-win situation.

 

Topics Included in this book:

About the Author

Preface

Introduction

Accountability

Why Should Occupational Therapists Use Rubrics?

Critical Thinking, Clinical Reasoning and Clinical Judgment

Thinking like a Researcher

What is a Rubric?

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Rubrics for an Assessment

Tips for Rubric Development

How Do Rubrics Relate to the IEP?

Types of Rubrics

Just a Word on Organization

Occupational Therapy Assessment

A Balance between Standardized and Non-Standardized Assessments

A More Complete Picture

Interview

Clinical Observations

Components of a Rubric

Goal/Objective/Benchmark

Scoring/Rating Scales

Criteria

Descriptors

Comments

Individual Skill Rubric

Analytic Rubric

Holistic Rubric

Chapter Five

Why are Other Staff Members Taking Data on my Goals?

Making Goals Measurable

What does Measurable Mean?

Goal Development Chart

Collecting Relevant Data

Formative Data

Summative Data

Data Collection

Paperless?

Case Studies

Joey

Task:  Shoe Tying

Plan:  Assessment

Questions & Answers

Results & Follow Up

Charlotte

Task:  Keyboarding

Plan: Assessment

Questions & Answers

Results & Follow Up

Bibliography

Index

Table 1:  Types of Rubrics

Table 2:  This is an example of a Individual skill rubric with benchmarks for a cutting with scissors goal

Table 3:  Sample of Staff Log-In Sheet

Table 4:  Methods of Assessment

Table 5:  Descriptive Terms to Rate Student’s Performance

Table 6:  Sample Holistic Rubric

Table 7:  Sample Measurable Goals  for IEP

Table 8:  Goal Development Chart

Table 9:  Types of Data

Table 10:  Interpreting Data Worksheet

Table 11:  Double Loop Shoe Tying Assessment Rubric

Table 12:  Double Loop Shoe Tying Assessment Data Sheet

Table 13:  Adapted Double Loop Shoe Tying Rubric

Table 14:  Adapted Double Loop Shoe Tying Assessment Rubric Data Collection Sheet

Table 15: One Hand Keyboarding Assessment

Table 16:  Graphic Representation of Data Collected

Table 17: Keyboarding Assessment Rubric

Table 18:  Assessment Rubric: Putting on Socks with One Hand

Table 19:  Data Collection: Putting on Socks with One Hand

Table 20:  Assessment Rubric:  Packaging Utensils

Posted in Eleanor Cawley, M.S., OTR/L

Imagine the Life of a Student with an Executive Function Disorder…..

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If you click on the photo above, you can read the infographic on a student, named Josh, who happens to have an executive function disorder.  This is all too common for many parents and teachers–the student unintentionally comes to school without ……. Homework is one of those things that is typically forgotten. Imagine how the student feels when the teacher asks for the homework and it’s not there.  There has to be a solution and there is.  There are a number of ways that the forgotten homework problem can be resolved through technology.

A great way to resolve this problem is by using Microsoft OneNote.  Microsoft OneNote comes with all Microsoft Office Suites–from the least expensive to the most expensive suite.  If you have purchased Microsoft Office then you have OneNote.  Most school districts use Microsoft Office so that they already have it as well.  A student’s homework notebook can be stored in a number of ways:  1.  The school district may allow access to the district server with a student log in from home.  2.  The district can allow access to a Windows Live account from a school computer or iPad.  The OneNote iPad app is free!

So now, the student, through whatever means, is able to access his or her homework assignment in their OneNote notebook.  As soon as the student enters any response to the assignment, it is instantaneously updated on any device that the student or teacher has access to.  So that means when the teacher says, “Josh do you have your homework?” Josh can say yes I do!  If it is not the paper version [easily printed from OneNote], at least Josh would be able to retrieve his assignment from OneNote.  This problem is then eliminated thus helping Josh feel more secure in his abilities.

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Remember that this is only a very basic rubric and will need to be modified to meet the individual needs of each student

It is very helpful to use rubrics to help a student see progress.  This rubric can be saved as a template within OneNote and be completed immediately after the homework is complete.  An additional rubric can be used to demonstrate Josh’s progress in locating his homework at school. In my opinion, we have to stop sweating the small stuff and find ways to help students with Executive Function Disorder be more successful in school.  If we can eliminate minor problems by using technology then that’s what we need to do.

Posted in Eleanor Cawley, M.S., OTR/L

School-Based Professionals Using Microsoft OneNote

As I have always said, Microsoft OneNote far out shines its free counterpart, Evernote.  I use OneNote for all my documentation needs. In fact, I wrote about it in my book, ‘Using Rubrics to Monitor Outcomes in Occupational Therapy.’  OneNote acts as a notebook or file folder.  Each notebook can have an infinite number of tabs [sections] and pages.  The best thing is that you can carry all your files, well organized, on a thumb drive [USB Drive].  Student work samples can be scanned into OneNote and other work samples can be printed into OneNote.  I can enter a page from any program or website. For me, the best feature of OneNote, and the one that makes it so much more flexible than Evernote, is the ability to create templates that can be used in every notebook.  Templates are universal.  That saves much needed time, as I do not have to redo the template for each of my students. OneNote conserves your energy since you never have to take large files or notebooks home.

 

Posted in Eleanor Cawley, M.S., OTR/L

Annual Review will be here before you know it–Create Balanced Assessments!

That’s right!  Annual review season will be here in just a few months.  You should start writing your annual reviews shortly.  During annual review, it is prudent to get a student’s feedback on what is working and what is not working.  Make sure that you have a way to gain that additional information.  An interview is always helpful to provide insight on a student’s ability to function not only in the classroom but also at home.  Parents so often paint a different picture of a student’s abilities at home.  Students can behave differently at home.

This is the time to put all your ‘ducks in a row.’  When assessing your students, make sure to have a balanced assessment with some type of real-life [authentic] assessment.  This often means having a rubric to demonstrate how a student’s progress has been judged and the data that supports the student’s progress.

Think about interviewing your student to learn about his or her insights into their skills. Did you ever think about providing your student with a satisfaction survey?  This is quite eye opening.  By developing a rapport with your students, you have the opportunity to create a report that is quite inclusive of all their skills and their opinions.  Listening to and including your student’s opinions leads to better goal development, better outcomes and improved compliance with recommended strategies.

Engage your students in every way possible to participate in collecting data and the development of their IEP.  You will go a long way in developing the respect and the trust of your students.

Posted in Occupational Therapy

-Using Rubrics to Measure Patient Progress in All Practice Areas

Taken from the handout "Putting on Socks with One Hand" from Ohio State's Wexner Medical Center
Taken from the handout “Putting on Socks with One Hand” from Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center

The following example of using a rubric in a rehab setting was developed from the handout “Putting on Socks with One Hand” available on Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center site.   The rubric contained in this post was developed from this handout so that the directions that are provided to the patient match the expectations of the therapist as set forth in the assessment rubric.  If you have read my book, “Using Rubrics to Monitor Outcomes in Occupational Therapy”,  you would know:

 “Various dictionaries define a rubric as a set of rules.  In this case, rules that are used to make a judgment regarding a student’s level of performance.  Rubrics identify the standard of performance.  It is a way of communicating what is expected, describing a level of performance and the associated quality.”

So now we can see how the handout becomes a rubric and how a rubric is more clear and more transparent as a method of documenting patient progress than any other.

The rubric contains not only the steps to follow [listed as criteria] but also contains descriptors [as a graded judgment of attainment].  In this example, level of attainment or goal progress is assessed through the number of trials [red].  This method of documenting goal progress can be monitored and judged by any other therapist working with the patient when the primary therapist is not present.  The criteria is measurable and can be measured.  This meets the IDEA criteria.  By outlining the rules for judgement, consistency between raters [therapists] is possible.  Does each therapist [measuring progress] find the same areas of deficit?  More than likely, yes.  The potential for inconsistency can come from the therapeutic activities conducted prior to the task.  For example, did the primary therapist apply heat, but the covering therapist did not?  Did the primary therapist perform stretching exercises differently than the covering therapist?  While there are many variables between therapists, a consensus in deficit areas should be judged to be similar.  Please keep in mind that the rubric contained in this post is an assessment rubric [a standard based on the handout provided to the patient].  Once the patient’s deficits or limitations have been identified, the rubric will need to be modified to meet the individual needs of the patient.  Initially, developing a rubric can be time consuming.  However, once you have developed your rubric and saved it to use again, it can easily be modified for each individual patient.

If you would like a copy of this assessment rubric, please follow my blog and send your e-mail address to eleanorot@gmail.com

One Hand Sock Data Sheet